Category Archives: Internet Marketing

Digital Marketing Metrics – How To Convert Customers

There is much talk in digital marketing about how to generate visits to your website but of course that is only half of the challenge.  If you run an ecommerce site you want people to buy from you.  To use the traditional terminology you might say the strategy for driving visitors to your site is your acquisition strategy and the strategy for getting them to buy from you is your conversion strategy.  Once visitors are on our site we need to maximise the conversion rate.

Having fun with funnels

Google analytics uses conversion funnels to enable you to track the movement of visitors through your website.  If you are selling products you clearly need to structure your site in a way that leads customers through a clear and logical process to a ‘goal URL’ which might for example be the Thank You page after check out.  You are likely to lose visitors at each stage in the process but it is the marketer’s job to minimise the ‘wastage’ at each stage.

How Conversion Funnels work

In the example above visitors to the site are shown at the top level.  We can track where visitors came from and which page they landed on.  As we move down the funnel visitors get nearer to your goal but visitors are lost at each stage.  Some may leave the site, others may visit another page and not follow the direction of your speficied goal.  Let’s take a look at some of the stages in the conversion process shown in the funnel:

  • Bounces – the bounce rate is the number of visitors who leave the site without visiting any other page.  High bounce rates might be a sign that your content is not engaging visitors or you may be driving visitors to a page that is not relevant for them (time to look at your SEO and inbound link strategy!).
  • Browsers – here visitors are moving around the site and may be visiting a few different product pages for example.  The site is engaging interest at some level.
  • Early Waverers – visitors at this stage may be looking at specific product specifications, prices or product guarantees for example.  They are deciding whether to go to check-out.
  • Late Waverers – these are visitors who actually go into the checkout process but abort before the payment stage.  Perhaps the checkout process is too slow, confusing or does not feel secure?
  • Conversions – visitors reaching this stage are the ultimate gauge of success for our marketing objectives.  They have moved through the whole buying process and purchased a product or service.

How to improve conversion rates

Conversion funnels show us the stages at which we lose customers but not why we are losing customers – so we need to experiment.  Say your check-out process goes Billing >Shipping > Payment > Review > Thank You.  If you discovered that you are losing 40% of click-throughs from the shipping page you could test different elements of the page.  For example, are shipping options confusing?  Is the next call to action clearly displayed?  Are shipping costs uncompetitive?

By changing significant aspects of ‘problem’ pages, one at a time, you can use customer behaviour to determine what is wrong and how to fix it.  Amazon, for example significantly increased conversion rates by introducing their ‘One Click’ option making the checkout process as simple as possible.

Don’t just analyse – act!

One of the great advantages of digital marketing is that we have a wealth of analytical tools available to us – many of them free.  However, information is no use unless we can act on what it tells us.  That’s why testing and experimentation is really what comes after web analytics and where the time honoured rules of direct marketing testing can be bought into the digital world.


Digital Marketing Metrics – The Fundamentals

If there is one thing that all successful online businesses share it is a real understanding of what works and what doesn’t when it comes to digital marketing.  A strong understanding of how marketing efforts are paying off is crucial to ensure you get the most from your online investment.  The great news is that there are a huge number of possibilities for measuring online marketing success, so many in fact that it pays to start by thinking about the basics.

Traditional vs Digital Metrics

Before direct marketing came along traditional advertising, particularly brand advertising was very difficult to measure in terms of ROI.  Direct Marketing was built on being clearly measurable.  You could calculate your ROI for all of your campaigns and use testing to adapt and improve future performance.  That is also the basis of measuring metrics online but we now have some big advantages including:

  1. More measurement options – you can derive a much greater array of information from online customers than you can for offline by tracking their behaviour.
  2. Speed – you can measure customer behaviour in real-time.  Try doing that with direct mail!
  3. Cost control – for example if you are spending money on PPC campaigns you can set daily and campaign limits for spending so there is no wasted budget.

Basic online metrics

The most popular method for reviewing digital metrics is google analytics.  You can generate well over a hundred different reports using this tool but first things first.  The most basic metrics you find on your google analytics ‘dashboard’ are:

  • Visits – total number of non-unique visits to your site
  • Page views – total number of page impressions i.e. number of times pages have been viewed
  • Pages per visit – an average number of pages viewed by each visitor e.g. 2.9
  • Bounce rate – the number of visitors leaving you site after viewing only one page
  • Average time on site – otherwise known as ‘stickiness’.  How well the site maintains visitors
  • % new visits – how many visitors have first timers on your site

These metrics serve a purpose but if you are selling something online you need to look deeper.  The first question to ask is ‘What is the goal of my website?’.  You may have a number of goals but if you are in business your main goal is likely to be to sell X amount of X product, generating X amount of revenue.

Start with Goal Setting

Google analytics enables you to set-up a number of goals and run reports specifically to check how well you are doing in achieving them.  Say your current goal is track how many visitors are reaching the checkout page on your site i.e. buying a product.  You can set up a goal called ‘Buy Product’ and define this as a ‘URL destination’ goal.  This will then enable you to report on how many times visitors reach the Confirmation of order page.

Different types of goal

Even the most hardened capitalist should be interested in more than just sales – you need to understand what leads to sales.  Digital marketing success needs to be measured in more holistic sense.  That’s why google analytics allows you to measure goals in 3 ways:

  • A URL destination goal – allows you to see how many times visitors have visited a certain part of your site.  For example, if they sign up for your email newsletter each time they do so a URL will be displayed.  Google Analytics will count how many times that URL is reached so you can measure how many users are signing up against your objectives.
  • Time on site goal – this is a useful metric because it helps to prove how engaging your content is which in turn helps to show how engaged customers are with your site.  Engagement increases your chances of making sales and building a loyal customer base.  In 2010 the average website visit was 5.2 minutes according to google analytics.
  • Pages per visit goal – this helps to show much navigation around your site the average visitor is doing.  Your goal might be to get visitors to visit at least 5 pages.  Your report would then show the percentage of visitors doing so.

So these are a few basic but useful ways to measure your marketing goals online.  When getting started for the first time the most important thing is to have a clear view of which pieces of information are most important for measuring success, your key performance indicators (KPIs) and to produce a number of structured reports for delivering that information.  In my next post I will look conversion funnels, another important measure of your digital marketing performance.

Writing online copy – 5 tips for marketers

Does digital copy and content produced by marketers really need to be any different to the copy produced for traditional offline media?  While there are some truths about writing copy that will never change the evolution of digital media brings some new challenges we can’t ignore.  Here are just a few tips for anyone producing online content…

Less is more

Consider how you read copy online, whether that’s on a PC, mobile or tablet.  People don’t read the internet in the traditional sense.  They skim read.  No matter how much pride you have in your website and it’s content remember that people are visiting it with a clear objective.  They may want to ask a question, compare a product or maybe even buy something but they want to do this quickly.  If they have to trawl through paragraphs of marketing speak they are far more likely to visit your competitors site instead.  Use fewer words to communicate your message clearly.

Use customer speak

One of the biggest sins of any marketing copywriter is to write for an audience based on assumptions.  A previous boss once told me that when writing copy I should remember that ‘men are analytical and women are emotional’.  That is an assumption and a very broad one!  There is no better way to understand the language of your customers that to listen to them.  Listen to calls in your call centre, visit your shop floor, read customer complaints and testimonials.  Marketing teams always have their own jargon and way of talking about their products but how well do you and your colleagues represent your audience?

Create ‘personas’

Busy and stressed exec persona.

This is a way to bring your web users ‘alive’.  You create a number of virtual people who each represent a segment of your customer base.  You give them a name, socio-demographic profile and picture.  How web savvy are they?  What are their ‘information goals’ i.e. why are they likely to visit your website?  How much time to they have – are they busy parents or retired people with more free time?  Eventually you build up a detailed picture of your customers and prospects and have a much better chance of engaging them as loyal customers.  Remember, the personas are not just imaginary friends but virtual people based on your real customers.

A picture speaks a thousand words

This has never been more true than online.  The internet is a very visual medium and if you can bring copy alive with relevant images you have a far better chance of keeping visitors to your site interested.  If you are trying to communicate lots of information quickly consider using an infographic.  Try using images of real people, better still actual customers, instead of glossy images of models. Who are customers most likely to trust?  Make sure that brand based images are relevant and meaningful and ensure that you feature product images wherever possible.  Make things tangible and remember images are as important as words.

Navigation, navigation, navigation…

The web is awash with websites that are difficult to navigate.  Sites with search functions that never return what you are looking for.  A well structured homepage with clear navigation to all main areas of the site and clearly structured links and back-link throughout the site is essential.  Not only does it improve your SEO but it greatly reduces the chances of your customers going elsewhere to achieve their objective.  Sites with high bounce rates are usually poorly structured or contain badly written copy.  You may have literally seconds to convince visitors to your site that they are going to find what they are looking for.

In the accelerated world we live in people have short attention spans.  They expect the internet to deliver what they are looking for immediately.  Imagine telling someone 20 years ago that you would be able to find the answer to virtually any question in seconds on their computer.  As marketers we have less time to engage our customers and far more easily accessible competition.  In the digital world we need to upgrade to copywriting 2.0.

The art of link building

Networking the traditional way

The art of networking is one that businesspeople have long been trying to master.  ‘Get business cards printed and get out there and talk to the right people’ are words that many of us will have heard.  We have also all been told ‘it’s not what you know it’s who you know’.  Whatever your opinions about networking if you want your business to get noticed online you can’t ignore its online equivalent – link building.

What is link building?

Put simply a link building strategy involves getting other websites to display links to your site.  These are called ‘external links’.  There is also a strategy for links within your own site which is called ‘internal link architecture’.  External links are about more than just allowing users to navigate the internet, they are important in building the AUTHORITY of your website and thus your rank in search engine listings.

All links were not created equal

Some businesses have unscrupulously tried to post as many links to their site as possible, all over the web, to increase their authority with search engines.  Search engines got clever and changed their algorithms to that links are ‘weighted’.  You might think of an external link as a vote for your site but some votes carry much more value than others.  A vote from a site which itself has a high level of authority carries much more weight.  Some links actually carry no weight at all.  This are called ‘no follow’ links (and are used in Tweets for example).

How do you find sites with authority?                      


One simple way is to check the Google PageRank of a site.  All sites have page rank of between 1 and 10 with 10 being sites with the highest authority.  Getting a link from one of those sites to yours would do your search rankings a power of good but you would need a lot more links from sites with a ranking of 1 to achieve the same effect.  Much like in the real world a recommendation from the President of the USA would be worth far more than a recommendation from your mate from the pub.

Link building tactics

You need a solid plan to implement a link building strategy.  Tactics fall into the following categories:

  • Manual link building – the DIY approach to link building where you post the links yourself.  You don’t need to make friends with the other site first.  You might post links on social networks for example but this tactic is of limited value.
  • Mixture of editorial and manual – editorial input refers to owners of other sites who may be encouraged to link to your site.  Much of your strategy may rest on building relationships and trust with other site editors.
  • Completely editorial – sites with very strong and valued content are able to generate links from other, trusted sites without being prompted.  Having great content is invaluable for a highly successful link building project.

Link building ideas

There are many possibilities but here are some of the most important ones:

Great content – it is worth repeating that this is the single most important factor not only for a link building project but for the success of your online business full stop.  You can generate all of the traffic in the world but if your site does not contain content that people want to actually read and use you won’t be successful.  Ideally you want people to SHARE your content.  Why not produce a free podcast about how your product(s) can help people?  Think viral!

Digital PR – Traditionally you may have sent a press release to tell the media about your great products.  Today you might contact web owner or blogger to review and post links to your site.  Some bloggers make a living reviewing products in this way.

Ask your customers – if you have happy customers many of them might we willing to help spread the word about your business.  Do they write blogs?  Do they ‘like’ you on Facebook?  Do they have their own websites?  Ask them to mention you and link you your site where appropriate.

Giveaways and competitions – it is a timeless truth that people like a good competition or giveaway.  Other sites with customers interested in your prize or competition may be happy to provide a link.

Use social media – the upsurge in the popularity of social media in recent years has massive implications.  In fact ‘likes’ are becoming the new ‘links’.  This is a topic for another post.

Sounds like hard work?

The days when companies could cheat their way to the top of search rankings are long gone.  Now you need the relevance provided by keywords (SEO) and the authority provided by link building.  If you are a small or start up business this might seem daunting.  Although you need more nuance and sophistication in your approach today, it can be done.

If you have a niche product there will be less competition for keywords which means that link building less important.  Your SEO will take you muchfurther.  Even if there is lots of competition, don’t forget the power of offline channels to generate online traffic.  Direct mail, door drops, off the page ads, radio and TV ads, even billboards can all drive traffic to your site cost effectively if your campaign is well targeted.  We marketers have never had so many options are our disposal, the trick is picking the right ones.

Who needs search engines?


Getting your website noticed with keywords

Search Engine Optimisation is about getting your website ranked highly on search engines.  In this introduction I will look at the foundation of SEO – keywords.  Even people who aren’t familiar with the term will have experience of entering their own keywords into a search engine to find what they are looking for.  When a search engine displays your results it does so on the basis of RELEVANCE and AUTHORITY.

What is keyword relevance?

A search engine will pick up keywords from sources including titles, on-page text, headers and inbound links to a website.  If you are building a website and hope to generate visitors (and ultimately sales) you can’t afford to ignore keywords.  So how do you pick your keywords?  Firstly you need consider the following:

1)     Are the search words relevant to your business or product?

2)     Is there an appropriate number of searches for your keywords?

3)     How much competition is there for those keywords?

A brainstorm is a great way to come up with keywords. You want variety so this calls for some imagination.  Start with the obvious ones and then some up with as many different variations as you can.   Say you own a pet shop, some of the keywords listed below might be on your list.  The number to the right shows the estimated number of UK searches per month for each of the terms according to Google Adwords:

Did you find me on Google?

Pet shop (generic keyword) 368,000

Pet Shop London (geographic) – 12,100

Cat collars (product) – 90,500

Buying a cat (information based) 6600

Cat collars London (product/geography) – 91

These simple examples show the importance of getting the right balance between relevance and volume of searches.  The most generic search terms tend to be the most competitive making it hard to get a high ranking.  ‘Pet Shop’ might work for a major online pet retailer but not a local shop.  ‘Dog collars London’ is far too specific and unlikely to make you a millionaire.  The challenge is to find the middle ground and have fun doing it.

You should spend plenty of time researching your keywords before beginning any SEO project.  A great place to start is with the keywords tool on Google Adwords.  Experiment with your keywords and be creative.

Beating the competition

Don’t forget that unless you are providing a very niche product you are up against competition for the attention of the search engines.  Don’t be tempted to emphasise traffic over relevance.  You might feel great ranking higher than your competitor but if you are receiving so many phone calls you can’t deal with any other customers you will soon regret that approach.  Look for ‘long-tail’ keywords which deliver less traffic but have a better chance of ranking highly on searches.

How do you use your keywords?

Why not just pick one or two keywords and repeat them frequently to get the search engines interested?  This is the way things often used to work.  This sometimes made for uninviting copy which turned customers off.  Google became aware of this and started to look for keywords based on natural language patterns rather than mechanical repetition of terms.  This meant that webmasters needed to be much more savvy and creative in how they come up with and use keywords.  Today it is advisable to write your web content without worrying about SEO in the first instance then adapt your content intelligently.  Your content needs to be natural because search engines have gotten clever.

The importance of authority

So you have picked your keywords and you set about building your web content.  It won’t be long before you are at the top of the Google rankings!  Sadly, it’s not that easy.  Rankings are also driven by authority which is based on the ‘link profile’ of your site.  Links to your site from other websites help to build your authority.  If you get links from websites which themselves have high levels of authority better still.  Youtube has 565 million external links.  Twitter has 2.1 billion. has 334 million but it ranks highest on the web for ‘trust’ because of the reputation of the sites that link to it.  Link building deserves its own post.

Is SEO harder than you thought?

In principle SEO is not too difficult.  In practice it can be challenging.  However, it is as much an art as a science and far from being a sterile pastime for computer nerds it requires innovation, imagination and creativity.  The relevance aspect comes from keywords and the authority aspect from link building.  The web is full of companies large and small that have built their success on an intelligent use of SEO so it remains a key area for any digital marketer and any company planning to sell online.

From traditional to digital marketing. Revolution or evolution?

How many times have you read blogs, websites or books and come across the term ‘traditional marketing’?  To a casual observer it might appear that marketing has undergone a revolution where methods of the past have become museum pieces, to be replaced by the bright, shiny and new world of digital.

If you have been looking for a job in the past few years you will know how terms like Direct Marketing, while once ubiquitous, have now been replaced by Digital Marketing.  The Institute of Direct Marketing even had to rename themselves by shoehorning the word Digital into their name.  So is this a case of revolution or evolution?

“My name is Lee and I am a traditional marketer” I would murmur to a group of fellow suffers at my local Traditional Marketers Anonymous (TMA) group.  “I have spent the past 15 years sending millions of pieces of direct mail and religiously adhering to the AIDA formula for writing DM copy.  I’m a traditional marketer and I need help”.

Of course, it doesn’t have to be this way.  Comparing terms like traditional marketing and digital marketing completely misses the point.  The danger is that we try to create a new paradigm without basing it on the truths that underpin successful marketing.  The world of digital gives us the opportunity to realise the true potential of direct marketing but it’s also full of pitfalls, often expensive ones, that many organisations have already fallen into.  Technology should never come first.  Customers come first right?  Not always in practice that’s for sure.

I have two reasons for starting this blog.  Firstly, as a marketer who has come from a non-digital background I am working hard to make the transition into a role which includes digital channels – I’d like to share my experience with others in a similar situation and to hear about your experiences.  Secondly, I know that rather than starting from scratch, I can take the truths that underpin successful marketing and exlore how they can be used to underpin digital marketing campaigns that really work.

Exciting times lie ahead, may the evolution continue.